Lumière, Auguste

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b. 19 October 1862 Besançon, France
d. 10 April 1954 Lyon, France
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French scientist and inventor.
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Auguste and his brother Louis Lumière (b. 5 October 1864 Besançon, France; d. 6 June 1948 Bandol, France) developed the photographic plate-making business founded by their father, Charles Antoine Lumière, at Lyons, extending production to roll-film manufacture in 1887. In the summer of 1894 their father brought to the factory a piece of Edison kinetoscope film, and said that they should produce films for the French owners of the new moving-picture machine. To do this, of course, a camera was needed; Louis was chiefly responsible for the design, which used an intermittent claw for driving the film, inspired by a sewing-machine mechanism. The machine was patented on 13 February 1895, and it was shown on 22 March 1895 at the Société d'Encouragement pour l'In-dustrie Nationale in Paris, with a projected film showing workers leaving the Lyons factory. Further demonstrations followed at the Sorbonne, and in Lyons during the Congrès des Sociétés de Photographie in June 1895. The Lumières filmed the delegates returning from an excursion, and showed the film to the Congrès the next day. To bring the Cinématographe, as it was called, to the public, the basement of the Grand Café in the Boulevard des Capuchines in Paris was rented, and on Saturday 28 December 1895 the first regular presentations of projected pictures to a paying public took place. The half-hour shows were an immediate success, and in a few months Lumière Cinématographes were seen throughout the world.
The other principal area of achievement by the Lumière brothers was colour photography. They took up Lippman's method of interference colour photography, developing special grainless emulsions, and early in 1893 demonstrated their results by lighting them with an arc lamp and projecting them on to a screen. In 1895 they patented a method of subtractive colour photography involving printing the colour separations on bichromated gelatine glue sheets, which were then dyed and assembled in register, on paper for prints or bound between glass for transparencies. Their most successful colour process was based upon the colour-mosaic principle. In 1904 they described a process in which microscopic grains of potato starch, dyed red, green and blue, were scattered on a freshly varnished glass plate. When dried the mosaic was coated with varnish and then with a panchromatic emulsion. The plate was exposed with the mosaic towards the lens, and after reversal processing a colour transparency was produced. The process was launched commercially in 1907 under the name Autochrome; it was the first fully practical single-plate colour process to reach the public, remaining on the market until the 1930s, when it was followed by a film version using the same principle.
Auguste and Louis received the Progress Medal of the Royal Photographic Society in 1909 for their work in colour photography. Auguste was also much involved in biological science and, having founded the Clinique Auguste Lumière, spent many of his later years working in the physiological laboratory.
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Further Reading
Guy Borgé, 1980, Prestige de la photographie, Nos. 8, 9 and 10, Paris. Brian Coe, 1978, Colour Photography: The First Hundred Years, London ——1981, The History of Movie Photography, London.
Jacques Deslandes, 1966, Histoire comparée du cinéma, Vol. I, Paris. Gert Koshofer, 1981, Farbfotografie, Vol. I, Munich.
BC

Biographical history of technology. - Taylor & Francis e-Librar. . 2005.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Lumière, Auguste — (1862 1954)    Cinematographer and film pioneer. The elder brother of Louis Lumière, Auguste Lumière assisted Louis in the development of the cinématographe, the first film camera, and aided him in the founding and running of the Studios Lumières …   Guide to cinema

  • Lumière, Auguste — (1862 1954)    Cinematographer and film pioneer. The elder brother of Louis Lumière, Auguste Lumière assisted Louis in the development of the cinématographe, the first film camera, and aided him in the founding and running of the Studios Lumières …   Historical Dictionary of French Cinema

  • Lumière, Auguste and Louis — born Oct. 19, 1862, Besançon, France died April 10, 1954, Lyon born Oct. 5, 1864, Besançon, France died June 6, 1948, Bandol French inventors. In 1882 Louis developed a method of making photographic plates, and by 1894 the brothers factory was… …   Universalium

  • Lumière,Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas — Lu·mière (lo͝o myĕrʹ, lü ), Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas. 1862 1954. French chemist, inventor, and cinematography pioneer. With his brother Louis Jean Lumière (1864 1948) he gave the first public showing of a cinematic film (1895). * * * …   Universalium

  • Lumière, Auguste y Louis — (19 oct. 1862, Besançon, Francia–10 abr. 1954, Lyon) (5 oct. 1864, Besançon, Francia–6 jun. 1948, Bandol). Inventores franceses. En 1882, Louis creó un método para elaborar placas fotográficas y en 1894 la fábrica de los hermanos ya producía 15… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Auguste et Louis Lumière — Données clés Nom de naissance Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas Lumière …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Auguste Et Louis Lumière — Auguste et Louis Lumière Nom de naissance Auguste Marie Louis Nicholas Lumière et Louis Jean Lumière Naissance …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Auguste Lumière — Auguste et Louis Lumière Auguste et Louis Lumière Auguste et Louis Lumière Nom de naissance Auguste Marie Louis Nicholas Lumière et Louis Jean Lumière Naissance …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Auguste Lumière — Auguste und Louis Lumière Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas Lumière (* 19. Oktober 1862 in Besançon; † 10. April 1954 in Lyon) und Louis Jean Lumière (* 5. Oktober 1864 in Besançon; † 6. Juni 1948 in Bandol, Va …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas Lumière — Auguste und Louis Lumière Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas Lumière (* 19. Oktober 1862 in Besançon; † 10. April 1954 in Lyon) und Louis Jean Lumière (* 5. Oktober 1864 in Besançon; † 6. Juni 1948 in Bandol, Va …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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